Enmotus Blog

A New Age Storage Stack

Posted by Jim O'Reilly on Jun 4, 2018 3:42:54 PM

For over three decades, we’ve lived with a boring truth. Disk drive performance was stuck in a rut, only doubling over all that time. One consequence was that storage architecture became frozen, with little real innovation. RAID added a boost, but at a high price. In fact, we didn’t get a break until SSDs arrived on the scene.

SSDs really upset the applecart. Per drive performance increased 1000X in just a few years and all bets were off at that point. Little did we realize that the potential of SSDs reached into stratospheric levels of millions of IOPS per drive.

All of this performance broke the standard SCSI model of the storage stack in the operating system. An interrupt-driven, verbose stack with up to seven levels of address translation just doesn’t cut the I/O rate needed. The answer is the NVMe stack, which consolidates I/O’s and interrupts efficiently and uses the power of RDMA to reduce round-trip counts and overhead dramatically. IOPS rates in excess of 20M IOPS have been demonstrated and there is still room to speed up the protocol.

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Topics: NVMe, autotiering, hyperconverged, NVMe over Fibre, enmotus, data analytics, NVDIMM

Content driven tiering using storage analytics

Posted by Adam Zagorski on Aug 9, 2017 10:05:00 AM

IT has used auto-tiering for years as a way to move data from expensive fast storage to cheaper and slower secondary bulk storage. The approach was at best a crude approximation, being only able to distinguish between objects on the basis of age or lack of use. This meant, for instance, that documents and files stayed much longer in expensive storage than was warranted. There simply was no mechanism for sending such files automatically to cheap storage.

Now, to make life even more complicated, we’ve added a new tier of storage at each end of the food chain. At the fast end, we now have ultra-fast NVDIMM offering an even more expensive and, more importantly space limited, way to boost access speed, while at the other end of the spectrum the cloud is reducing the need for in-house long-term storage even more. Simple auto-tiering doesn’t do enough to optimize the spectrum of storage in a 4-state system like this. We need to get much savvier about where we keep things.

The successor to auto-tiering has to take into account traffic patterns for objects and plan their lifecycle accordingly. For example, a Word document may be stored as a fully editable file in today’s solutions, but the reality is that most of these documents, once fully edited, become read-only objects moved in their entirety to be read. If changes occur, a new, renamed, version of the document is created and the old one kept intact.

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Topics: autotiering, big data, Data Center, NVMe over Fibre, enmotus, data analytics

How To Prevent Over-Provisioning - Dynamically Match Workloads With Storage Resources

Posted by Adam Zagorski on Jun 25, 2017 10:05:00 AM

The Greek philosopher Heraclitus said, “The only thing that is constant is change.” This adage rings true today in most modern datacenters. The demands on workloads tend to be unpredictable, which creates constant change. At any given point in time, an application can have very few demands placed on it, and at a moment notice the workload demands spike. Satisfying the fluctuations in demand is a serious challenge for datacenters. Solving this challenge will translate to significant cost savings amounting to millions of dollars for data centers.

Traditionally, data centers have thrown more hardware at this problem. Ultimately, they over provision to make sure they have enough performance to satisfy peak periods of demand. This includes scaling out with more and more servers filled with hard drives, quite often short stroking the hard drives to minimize latency. While hard drive costs are reasonable, this massive scale out increases power, cooling and management costs. The figure below shows an example of the disparity between capacity requirements and performance requirements. Achieving capacity goals with HDDs is quite easy, but given that individual high performance HDDs are only able to achieve about 200 random IOPS, it takes quite a few HDDs to meet performance goals of modern database applications.

Today, storage companies are pushing all flash arrays as the solution to this challenge. This addresses both the performance issue as well as the power and cooling, but now massive amounts of non-active (cold) data are stored on your most expensive storage media. In addition, not all applications need flash performance. Adding all flash is just another form of overprovisioning with a significantly higher cost penalty.

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Topics: NVMe, autotiering, big data, All Flash Array, SSD, Data Center, NVMe over Fibre, data analytics

The Art of “Storage-as-a-Service”

Posted by Jim O'Reilly on Jan 9, 2017 2:24:50 PM

The Art of “Storage-as-a-Service”

Most enterprise datacenters are today considering the hybrid cloud model for their future deployments. Agile and flexible, the model is expected to yield higher efficiencies than traditional setups, while allowing a datacenter to be sized to average, as opposed to peak, workloads.

In reality, achieving portability of apps between clouds and reacting rapidly to workload increases both run up against a data placement problem. The agility idea fails when data is in the wrong cloud when a burst is needed. This is exacerbated by the new containers approach, which can start up a new instance in a few milliseconds.

Data placement is in fact the most critical issue in hybrid cloud deployment. Pre-emptively providing data in the right cloud prior to firing up the instances that use it is the only way to assure adequate those expected efficiency gains.

A number of approaches have been tried, with varying success, but none are truly easy to implement and all require heavy manual intervention. Let’s look at some of these approaches:

  1. Sharding the dataset – By identifying the hottest segment of the dataset (e.g. Names beginning with S), this approach places a snapshot of those files in the public cloud and periodically updates it. When a cloudburst is needed, locks for any files being changed are passed over to the public cloud and the in-house versions of the files are blocked from updating. The public cloud files are then updated and the locks cleared.
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Topics: NVMe, autotiering, big data, SSD, hyperconverged

Why Auto-Tiering is Critical

Posted by Jim O'Reilly on Sep 22, 2016 9:39:46 AM

 

 Storage in IT comes in multiple flavors. We have super-fast NVDIMMs, fast and slow SSDs and snail-paced hard drives. Add in the complexities of networking versus local connection and price, and capacity, and figuring the optimum configuration is no fun. Economics and performance goals guarantee that any enterprise configuration will be a hybrid of several storage types.

Enter auto-tiering. This is a deceptively simple concept. Auto-tiering moves data back and forth between the layers of storage, running in the background. This should keep the hottest data on the most accessible tier of storage, while relegating old, cold data to the most distant layer of storage.

A simplistic approach isn’t quite good enough, unfortunately. Computers think in microseconds, while job queues often have a daily or weekly cycle. Data that the computer thinks is cold may suddenly get hotter than Hades when that job hits the system. Similarly, admins know that certain files are created, stored and never seen again.

This layer of user knowledge is handled by incorporating a policy engine into auto-tiering, allowing an admin to anticipate data needs and promote data through the tiers in advance of need.

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Topics: NVMe, autotiering, big data

Delivering Data Faster

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Enmotus FuzeDrive accelerates your hot data when you need it, stores it on cost effective media when you don't, and does it all automatically so you don't have to.

 

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